What is dBSPL?
The term, dBSPL (decibels Sound Pressure Level), is used to measure and quantify the intensity of sound. It’s often associated with how the human ear perceives the loudness of a sound. It’s an important unit of measure in several fields such as audio engineering, sound design, health and safety, and environmental studies. The “dB” in dBSPL stands for “decibel,” which is a logarithmic unit used to describe a ratio. The “SPL” stands for “Sound Pressure Level.” The dBSPL measurement is essential in a wide array of applications. In audio engineering, it aids in calibrating and balancing sound systems for optimal performance. In telecommunications, it’s used to ensure clear and consistent sound transmission. In the design of everyday tech products, from headphones to smartphones to home appliances, understanding dBSPL can help optimize user experience and meet noise regulations. Sound is the pressure variation or waves in air, or another medium like water, which our ears interpret as noise or music. So, dBSPL is used to measure the magnitude of this variation in comparison to a reference level. The reference level in the case of dBSPL is usually the quietest sound that the average human ear can hear, defined as 20 micropascals. This is considered as the threshold of human hearing. 0 dBSPL is typically considered the softest sound that the human ear can detect.
Why do we use the decibel scale?
Decibels are used to measure sound because they work in a similar way to how we hear. Our ears can pick up a huge range of sounds, from the softest whispers to the thunderous noise of a jet engine. But we don’t perceive this range in a straight line (linearly), where doubling the loudness would need twice the sound pressure. Instead, our ears work on a type of curve (logarithmically), where a sound needs to have 10 times more sound pressure to be heard twice as loud. This is why we use the decibel scale which is a logarithmic scale. It helps represent this wide range of sounds in a way that makes more sense with how we actually hear them. So, very quiet sounds and very loud sounds can all be described using decibels, which makes it a very practical and effective way to measure sound for human listeners. With every 10 dBSPL increase, the perceived loudness roughly doubles to the human ear. However, it’s important to remember that this can slightly vary among individuals based on their sensitivity to different frequencies. On this scale, a quiet room might be around 30 dBSPL, normal conversation is usually about 60 dBSPL, and sounds over 120 dBSPL can cause discomfort or even pain. The duration of the sound can also impact its perceived loudness.